Develop or Revise Online Course
Garrison et al.2 argued that teaching presence, together with cognitive presence and social presence, are the three essential elements in a Community of Inquiry model to promote a learning community and educational outcomes. Teaching presence is involved with instructional management, building understanding, and direct instruction.2 Instructional management is concerned with course design such as setting curriculum, designing assessment, and selecting the medium. Building understanding is established when instructors actively facilitate effective student discussions to help them reach consensus and understanding. Direct instruction is about presenting content and questions and providing guidance and feedback through assessments. Previous studies indicate teaching presence is related to increased motivation, enhanced sense of learning community, and student success.