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Bloom's Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives (Revised)

Objectives state what we want our students to learn. The statement of an objective describes the type of cognitive process that you want the student to use to demonstrate learning the subject matter content.

Examples, with the cognitive processes in italics and the subject matter content in bold:

  • The student will learn to categorize rational and irrational numbers.
  • The student will learn to distinguish among confederal, federal, and unitary systems of government.
  • The student will be able to design an experiment to test a hypothesis.
Type of Knowledge Examples
Factual Knowledge The basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it Technical vocabulary, musical symbols, major natural resources, reliable sources of information, works by an artist, historical events
Conceptual Knowledge The interrelationship among the basic elements within a larger structure that enables them to function together Syntax classifications, periods of geological time, forms of business ownership, Pythagorean theorem, fundamental laws of physics, theory of evolution, theory of plate tectonics, genetic models, models of government
Procedural Knowledge How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods Skills used to paint a watercolor, skills used to determine a sports injury, algorithms for solving quadratic equations, methods of literary criticism, the scientific method, criteria for determining which statistical procedure to use
Metacognitive Knowledge Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one's own cognition Knowledge of various mnemonic strategies, knowledge of various organizational strategies, knowledge that elaboration strategies such as summarizing and paraphrasing can result in deeper levels of comprehension, knowledge of one's level of knowledge in an area, knowledge of one's motivation for a task
Cognitive Process Verbs Sample Question Stem Potential Student Activity
Remember Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory Remember, recognize, identify, recall, retrieve
  • What happened after...?
  • How many...?
  • What is...?
  • Who was it that...?
  • Where did...?
  • Make a list showing...
  • Make a time line
  • Make a chart showing...
Understand Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication Understand, interpret, clarify, paraphrase, infer, represent, translate, exemplify, match, illustrate, explain, classify, categorize, map, summarize, abstract, generalize, predict, conclude, compare, contrast, interpolate, extrapolate
  • Explain... Who do you think...
  • Why did...
  • What would a graph of ... look like
  • Which equation corresponds to this statement...
  • What are examples of...
  • How could you group...
  • How are ... similar
  • Write a summary of ...
  • Prepare a flow chart (concept map) of ...
  • Write an explanation of...
  • Make a taxonomy of ...
  • Draw a map/graph of ...
  • Write down possible outcomes of...
  • Retell an event in your own words
  • Make a model of...
Apply Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation apply, execute, carry out, use, implement
  • What is the answer to the following problem ...?
  • How would you solve...?
  • How would you do ...?
  • Solve a problem
  • Write a response to a case study
  • Perform a lab experiment
Analyze Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose Analyze, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, focus, select, organize, integrate, outline, structure, attribute, deconstruct, find coherence
  • What was the turning point ...?
  • How is ... similar to ...?
  • Why did ... occur?
  • What is needed to ...?
  • Can you distinguish between ...?
  • What were some of the motives behind ...?
  • Write a biography
  • Make a map showing interrelationships
  • Write an analysis of ...
  • Write an essay examining bias in ...
  • Construct a graph to organize relevant information
Evaluate Make judgments based on criteria or standards Evaluate, check, coordinate, detect, monitor, test, critique, judge
  • Is there a better solution?
  • What do you think about ... and why?
  • Is ... good and why?
  • Conduct a debate
  • Write a critique
  • Prepare a case
  • Write an opinion piece
Create Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure Create, generate, hypothesize, plan, design, produce, construct
  • What are possible solutions to ...?
  • Can you design a... to...?
  • What would happen if...?
  • How many ways can you...?
  • Design an experiment
  • Create a new product
  • Plan a marketing campaign
  • Create a piece of art
  • Design a new building
  • Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.